Preliminary Thoughts on Race, Disability, and Health

Despite increasingly widespread attention to disability rights, disability outcomes in the United States remain shockingly divided by race. Few people realize that having a disability today is literally deadlier for Americans who are not white.

The numbers are haunting. While life expectancy for white Americans with Down syndrome is 60 years, African Americans live only half as long. Indeed, Blacks with Down syndrome are significantly more likely to die before their first birthday and face higher mortality rates until age 20. Since race has no biological impact on Down syndrome, social causes are the only possible explanation.

Down syndrome is not an anomaly. Looking at Spina Bifida, 96% of white babies survive their first year, but the number drops to 88% for Blacks and 93% for Hispanics. Autism, ADHD, speech and language disorders, and mental illness show similar racial disparities in diagnosis, care, and outcomes. Yet this receives scant attention by the media, researchers, and policy makers. Why?

Consider, too, the links between disability, race, and risk of violence. While it is known that people with disabilities are more likely to be victims of violence, how does this break down by race? What about violence committed by law enforcement? Time and again, we have seen highly publicized cases of police violence against people of color with additional conditions. Eric Garner’s asthma, Freddie Gray’s lead poisoning, Sandra Bland’s alleged depression, Matthew Ajibade’s bipolar disorder, and more. The list is growing, but the discussion about race and disability has barely begun.

As an anthropologist with expertise on disability in the U.S., I have encountered these disparities firsthand in my qualitative research and also in my ongoing review of the literature. Despite the successes of disability rights, millions of Americans with disabilities are cut off because of the color of their skin. People are hurting. People are dying. And, for the most part, this story remains untold.

[This piece is taken from a magazine pitch I recently submitted. Any suggestions regarding where to publish this story would be greatly appreciated! Note that this is not an academic piece. I want to reach people and build awareness, so the last place I would want to publish this particular paper would be in a paywalled journal!]

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